A roof is part of a building envelope, both thecovering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which providesprotection from weather, notably rain, but also heat, wind and sunlight; andthe framing or structure which supports the covering

In Simple words “Roof is what,Covers both Material & Human Being”


- Must be weather resistant torain, snow, wind and sun.

- The durability should be equal toor in excess of those materials used in the remainder of the building.

- Should have good thermalinsulation properties.

- Should require a minimum ofmaintenance.

- Should be constructed in such away as to retain structural stability when dead and imposed loads are appliedto it

Truss &Its Component:-

-Heel -Thepoint on the truss where the top and bottom chords intersect

-Slope -Thevertical rise in inches for every 12 inches of horizontal run.

-Panel Length -The horizontal distance between the centerlines of two consecutive panelpoints along the top or bottom chord.

-Peak -Thepoint on the truss where the sloped chords meet.

-Top Chord -Horizontaldistance between the centerlines of two consecutive panel points along the topor bottom chord.

-Continuous Lateral Brace -Members installed at right angles to a chord or webmember of a truss to provide stability to the truss. All lateral braces must bestabilized.

-Overall Height -Vertical distance between bearing and the uppermost point of the peak.

-Wedge -Thetriangular piece of lumber inserted between the top and bottom chords, usuallyto allow the truss to cantilever.

(Video) How to install an EPDM Flat Rubber Roof, ClassicBond

-Bottom Chord -The incline or horizontal member that establishes the bottom of a truss,usually carrying combined tension and bending stress.

-Splice -Thelocation at which two chord members are joined together to form a single member.It may occur at a panel point or between panel points.

-Panel Point -Also called a joint, it's the location on a truss where the web members andtop or bottom chords intersect and are connected by metal connector plates.

-Web -Themembers that join the top and bottom chords to form the triangular patternstypical of trusses.

RoofClassification Depends on:-

-Area covered

-Materials available

-Type of lighting

-Ventilation neededinside

-Available appliance

Classificationof Roof :-







Sketches of different types of roof:-

(Video) What are the different roof coverings?

-Gabled Roof: - Thereare many types of gabled roofs (roofs that essentially look like triangles fromthe front of the home). I enjoy the cross gabled roof which is used in homeswith extra wings so that each portion of the home has its own triangular gabledroof as seen in this photo.

-Gambrel: - This type of roof is verysimilar to the Mansard Roof. The core differences are that the gambrel has verticalgable ends and the roof hangs over the facade of the home whereas the MandrelRoof does not. Additionally this one is Dutch-inspired instead of French.

- Hip Roof: - Thisroof is very similar to the pyramid roof. The difference is that instead of comingto a point at the top the four sides meet at a ridge or a flat spot like we seehere. This is architecturally more practical.

The hip roof is slightly more difficult to buildthan a gable roof. It is a popular choice, but does not provide for ventilationas well as some designs.

- Mansard Roof: - This type of roof is madeup of four slopes, two on each side of the home. The lower slope is a steeper,more vertical slope than the upper slope. The upper slope may or may not bevisible from the ground. This French style of roof allows for additional livingspace or storage space at the top of the house.

- Flat Roof: - This type of roof isobviously easy to identify! The benefits of a flat roof include that it'seasier to construct, safer if you're going to stand on top of it and generallymore accessible. The main drawback is that this type of roof requires moremaintenance than other roofs in large part because debris will gather on theroof with nowhere to go.

- Shed Roof: - A shed roof is similar to aflat roof but has more pitch. It is frequently used for additions or with otherroof styles.


- Specific Loads on roof: -

- The most common loads falling within the roof load width are:

- Gravity Dead loads includingroof and ceiling materials - these are felt by the structure all of thetime

- Gravity live loads includingPeople working on the roof and stuffstacked on it - these are only feltsome of the time by the structure

- Wind loads including downwardpressure or suction that lifts upward – these are only felt some of the timebut downward pressure adds to the gravity loads above, while uplift works inthe opposite directions.


Is a materials which gives aprotective surface to the roofing structure The function is only to preventingress or egress of heat & moisture into the building

- Thatch-is the craft of buildingaroofwith dry vegetation such asstraw,waterreed,sedge,rushes, orheather. Now become choice for rusticlook and more ecologically friendly roof.

- Wood- thin, tapered pieces of woodprimarily used tocoverroofsand walls of buildings to protect them from the weather

- Shingles- roof covering consisting ofindividual overlapping elements. Can be made of various materials suchaswood,composite orceramic.

- Tiles-made ofaceramicmaterial and is hard and brittle, poorly suited for placeswhere treelimbscan fall on a house's roof.

(Video) Backyard Patio Roof Timelapse

- Slates -is afine-grained,foliated, homogeneousmetamorphic rockderivedfrom an originalshale-typesedimentary rockcomposedofclayorvolcanic ash

- Asphalt – known as bitumen, viscousliquid or semi solid form of petroleum.

- Asbestoscement sheets-known as fiber cement sheet. It is a building material in which asbestos(silicate mineral) fibers are used to reinforce thin rigid cement sheets.

- Corrugatediron sheets-The corrugations increase the bending strength of the sheet. Normallyeach sheet is manufactured longer in its strong direction.

- Bituminousfelt-bitumenmixed with a filler component suchaslimestoneorsandorpolymersto givesrigidity and tear resistance.

- Sheet metalroof coverings (copper, Zink, etc.)-roofingsystem made frommetalpiece,ortiles.

ROOF VENTILATION: - Theterm “roofvent” can mean many things. As we define it, a roofvent is designed to remove hot air and moisture out of your attic.


oRidge Vents

oTurtleback Vents (Box Vents)

oPower Fans

RIDGE VENT: - Ridgevent is the best and most consistent system to install. It is installed on thevery top of your home at the ridgeline. This is the most natural and costeffective solution to your ventilating needs. Although ridge vent is consideredto be the best type of ventilating system it does have one main drawback. Ifyou have a high, hip style roof with little to no ridgeline it may not besuitable for ridge vent.

TURTLE VENT: - Turtlebackvents are typically installed a couple of feet below the ridgeline. This bringsus to our first drawback. Because the turtleback vent does not go all the wayto the top of the roof it leaves a pocket of air trapped above the vents. Unlikeridge vents, which run continuously across the ridgeline, turtleback vents areseperate units usually placed a few feet away from each other. This allows forgaps in your system and leaves hot and cold areas in your attic space.

POWER FANS: - power fans draw a great deal ofheat out of the attic fast it's still a mechanical based system. This means itis more susceptible to burning up and breaking down. This can lead to costlyservice calls and expensive electric bills. A power fan runs on electricity andis connected to a thermostat. The thermostat regulates when the fan should turnon and off. However if it's not working properly or installed wrong it may notturn on. In some cases the power fan may also run continuously. Anotherdrawback is there may be a noticeable noise difference when running. Oftentimes after evaluating a customer’s vent system.


3 Layer U PVC Sheets :-

(Video) How to Repair a Flat Roof with Liquid Roof

1Trapezoidal Profile

2.RoundWave Profile/Corrugated

Properties of UPVC Sheets: -

1.Chemical Resistance

2.Fire Resistance

3.Strength Capacity

4.Sound Insulation Property

Size of UPVCSheets:-

1.For 1 mm Thick sheet lengths are available in 2mtr,2.5mtr and 3 metre

2.Width of the Sheet isInternationally Standard that is 1130 mm

3.Thickness of Sheets isavailable in 1, 2, 2.5, 3.

4.For 1mm Thick UPVC Sheet,Purlin Distance should be kept 60 Cm.

(Video) Roof cover fitting guide from Specialised Covers

5.For 2/2.5/3mm Thick UPVC Sheet,Purlin Distance should be kept 1 metre.


What is a roof covering? ›

Roof covering means the roofing material exposed to the weather, the underlayments applied for moisture protection, and all flashing required in the replacement of a roof.

What is the most common roof covering? ›

Asphalt shingle roof

An asphalt shingle roof is the most common roofing material type you see on homes today. The reason for its popularity is because it's the most affordable type of roof on the market. An asphalt roof is made up of primarily asphalt shingles and other asphalt roofing components.

Why is it important to have a good roof? ›

If it's in good shape, your roof serves as a barrier against snow, hail, rain, ice, branches, and debris. If your roof is in poor shape, your home can get leaks, develop mold and mildew, and experience other problems. Even a small leak in the roof line can cause large-scale water problems across major home systems.

What is the best roof covering material? ›

The most durable types of roofing are slate and clay tiles but they're more expensive than materials like metal or wood. Functional roofing alternatives like green roofs and solar shingles are among the most expensive types. Replacing an old roof is one of the best and most profitable ways to invest in a home.

What is the difference between roof and roof covering? ›

roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a building. A roof protects the building and its contents from the effects of weather. Structures that require roofs range from a letter box to a cathedral or stadium, dwellings being the most numerous.

What are the advantages of roof covering? ›

5 Major Benefits of Roof Coating
  • Extends a Roof's Lifespan. Roof coating can potentially add more years to your roof's lifespan. ...
  • Prevents Roof Damages. ...
  • Makes Your Roof Impermeable. ...
  • Reduces Utility Costs. ...
  • Requires Less Repairs.
4 Jun 2019

What is used to cover the roof of a house? ›

Shingles. Made of fibreglass and asphalt, shingles protect the roof from rain and lend a house character.

What are roofs called? ›

Flat roofSingle-pitched (shed, skillion) roofGable roof
Ridged, multi-gable or m-type roofGambrel roofClerestory roof
Hip roofHalf-hip roofTented or pavilion roof
Rhombic roof/Rhenish helmArched roofBarrel roof
Conical roofSpireOnion dome
11 more rows

What is the roof and why is it important? ›

A roof (PL: roofs or rooves) is the top covering of a building, including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights, providing protection against rain, snow, sunlight, extremes of temperature, and wind. A roof is part of the building envelope.

How important is the roof on your house? ›

Your roof is one of the most important elements of your home. Without your roof, you're left susceptible to dangerous weather, hot and cold temperature, debris and dirt, and many other things. So, when it comes to roofing, it's important to do it right…and right away!

What makes a strong roof? ›

Metal and slate are two of the most durable roofing materials on the market. Specialized asphalt shingle products, like GAF's Timberline™ ArmorShield® II, can resist impact damage exceptionally too. The roof's ability to stay in place during violent wind events, like sustained gales, depends largely on several things.

What are the 3 main types of roofs? ›

Three Common Roof Designs and Their Advantages
  • Hip. A hip roof has slopes on all of its sides. The roof doesn't have even a single vertical side. ...
  • Gable. A gable roof features two sloping sides that meet at the top to form a ridge. ...
  • Flat. A flat roof has an extremely low pitch and is almost horizontally level.

What is roof material called? ›

One of the most commonly used roofing materials, asphalt roof shingles are cost-effective, durable and can provide protection in nearly all climates. They come in a variety of colors, which can fade over time.

What is the roof made of? ›

The most common residential roofing material used in the United States, asphalt shingles are popular because they are economical and easy to install. These shingles can be reinforced with fiberglass or organic materials (cellulose) without changing the appearance of the shingle.

What is the most durable roof covering? ›

Corrugated galvanized steel is one of the strongest, most durable roofing materials, since it lasts longer, is more resistant to wind, and absorbs less heat than asphalt shingles.

Which roof is best for house? ›

Asphalt Roofing Shingles

Relatively lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to install, asphalt shingles are the best choice for most houses. They come in sheets that are layered on a roof to give the illusion of more expensive single shingles, such as cedar and slate, that are installed one shingle at a time.

What is roof and its types? ›

roof, covering of the top of a building, serving to protect against rain, snow, sunlight, wind, and extremes of temperature. Roofs have been constructed in a wide variety of forms—flat, pitched, vaulted, domed, or in combinations—as dictated by technical, economic, or aesthetic considerations.

What is the most important part of the house? ›

The foundation on which a house is built is the most crucial element for it, regardless of how big or tiny it is. If the house is not built on a stable foundation, the foundation will break with time, causing harm to the house's internal and external walls.

What is the quality of a good roof? ›

A quality roof should be built with durable roofing materials that should be able to withstand severe winds, resist UV rays, and fire, and prevent leaks and pooling by diverting water away from the home.

Which type of roofs gives better? ›

Which type of roofs gives better resistance against shocks? Explanation: Flat, RCC roofs give better resistance against shocks compared to the sloping roofs or those designed with different slope angles.

What are the 2 main components of a roof? ›

The 5 Most Important Components of a Roof
  • Covering. The covering on your roof performs two functions. ...
  • Underlayment. The underlayment is a black thin paper that rests on top of the decking to protect it from water or air intrusion and other outside elements. ...
  • Metal Flashing. ...
  • Ventilation. ...
  • Insulation.
26 Mar 2018

What can damage a roof? ›

  • Tree Branches. Limbs from nearby trees can break and fall during heavy ice, wind or snow. ...
  • Roof Debris. ...
  • Critters. ...
  • Downspouts / Gutters. ...
  • Excessive Wind. ...
  • Strong Rain / Hail. ...
  • Ice / Snow. ...
  • Flashing Damage.
17 Apr 2017

How does a roof get damaged? ›

High winds, thunderstorms, hail storms, high heat, deep cold, and hurricanes will all cause damage. Kansas City and Chicago roofers alike know that thingles can get broken, ripped up and this can cause open spaces where water and moisture can get in. In winter, moisture gets in and then freezes.

How do you cover an exposed roof? ›

You will need a woven plastic tarp that is large enough to cover the area of exposed roof, plus an extra 3 feet on each side. You will also need multiple two-by-fours and a selection of screws to securely attach the materials.

How much roofing do I need? ›

Often, roofing shingles will be measured in the number of squares of a roof. 1 square is equal to 100 square feet of the roof. To determine the amount of squares you'll need for your old or new roof, just divide the total square footage by 100.

What are roof coverings made of? ›

A wide variety of roof coverings exist today, each with its own advantages depending on the use. The most common roofing materials available include asphalt, wood, metal, clay, cement and slate, glass and plastic, and plastic liquid coatings.

What is a roof overlay covering? ›

An overlay roof, or the act of overlaying a roof, is when your roofer puts a second set of shingles directly on top of your existing roof. While this isn't the most common method of roofing, it does happen, especially when homeowners are hoping to save a bit of money on their overall roofing costs.

Does roof covering need planning change? ›

Although planning permission for re-roofing is not typically required for straightforward residential projects, building regulations approval is usually necessary when re-roofing a dwelling. Other permissions may also be needed depending on factors such as project scope and location.

Which roof is the best? ›

Top 6 Best Roofing Materials
  • Asphalt Shingle Roofing: Best Overall.
  • Slate Roofing: Most Durable.
  • Metal Roofing: Most Versatile.
  • Wood Shingles: Most Environmentally Friendly Option.
  • Clay Tile Roofs: Best Curb Appeal.
  • TPO Roofing: Best for Flat Roof.

What is the name of roof? ›

Roof shapes include flat (or shed), gabled, hipped, arched, domed, and a wide variety of other configurations detailed below. Roof angles are an integral component of roof shape, and vary from almost flat to steeply pitched.

What is roof explain? ›

roof, covering of the top of a building, serving to protect against rain, snow, sunlight, wind, and extremes of temperature. Roofs have been constructed in a wide variety of forms—flat, pitched, vaulted, domed, or in combinations—as dictated by technical, economic, or aesthetic considerations. roof.

Do you need permission to reroof a house? ›

It is not normally necessary to apply for planning permission when you are re-roofing your home if the changes do not breach the following limits and conditions: Changes are not higher than 150mmfrom the existing Roofing plan.

What are the 4 things to consider when designing a roof? ›

4 Factors To Consider Before You Install A New Roof
  • Material. The type of material that you choose for your roofing system will have a major impact on its durability, physical appearance, longevity, and cost. ...
  • Budget. ...
  • Architecture. ...
  • Color. ...
  • Final Notes.

What are the factors to be considered in selecting a roof covering for a building? ›

5 Factors to Consider When Choosing Roofing Material
  • Overall Cost. It's your budget that sets the tone right from the start. ...
  • Material Weight. Certain roofing materials weigh more than others. ...
  • Local Weather. ...
  • Color Variety. ...
  • Maintenance Requirements.
28 Jun 2017


1. How to Easily Felt a Shed Roof The Right Way- DIY
2. What Are the Best Materials for a Flat Roof?
(The Roofing Channel)
3. How to install Supa-IBR roof covering
(Supa-Roof SA)
4. How to felt a shed roof
5. Types of Roof | Building Construction | Civil Engineering
(SGK Online Education)
6. Roof covering material/Country tile,Mangalore tile,A.C.sheet, G.I.sheet,Slates,Marble, Limestone....
(MFA Civil Engineering)
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