APP waterproofing membrane: Features, types and applications | Shibam Ventures (2023)

APP waterproofing membrane: Features, types and applications | Shibam Ventures (1)Waterproofing membranes are designed to protect a surface from the perils of leakage. Water penetration and leakage, if neglected, can have disastrous consequences for a structure. A waterproofing membrane acts as a protective layer which can be applied either on the roof, retaining walls or basement of a structure. There are different types of waterproofing membranes which can be broadly classified as sheet-based membranes and liquid-based membranes. Sheet-based membranes are in the form of rolls whereas liquid applied waterproofing membranes come in the form of liquid that can be sprayed on the surface.Bituminous waterproofing membrane is one of the most common sheet-based membranes. This article discusses the APP waterproofing membrane – one of the most popular and high utility bituminous membranes, highly regarded for its applications on the roof. Let’s understand what this membrane is and why is it so popular.

What is an APP waterproofing membrane?

APP stands for Atactic Polypropylene. APP membrane is the most commonly used waterproofing material on concrete roofs and low-slope roofs. APP membrane is applied to asphalts with a torch. Applications of APP membranes aren’t limited to just roofs. Man made ponds, bathrooms, water tanks, curtain walls, concrete channels can be protected against water ingress with APP waterproofing membrane. APP membrane is a durable waterproofing material largely preferred by contractors for safeguarding surfaces against leakage.

Features of APP membrane

Terraces and roofs are directly exposed to rains, highly increasing the chances of a leakage. Applying APP waterproofing membrane serves as an excellent barrier against water penetration, thanks to its many useful features. The most important features of APP that makes it a popular choice for waterproofing applications include the following:

APP waterproofing membrane: Features, types and applications | Shibam Ventures (2)

  1. APP membranes are characterized by high tensile strength. Tensile strength refers to the amount of stress that can be applied before a material breaks under tension.
  2. APP membranes are 100% impermeable, ruling out any chances of leakage after applying on the chosen surface.
  3. These are resistant to weathering. APP membranes are durable and won’t succumb to changing climatic conditions which is absolutely a must-have feature for a waterproofing material.
  4. APP membranes possess isotropic properties. Isotropic properties mean that the materials in the membrane won’t change properties in response to a change in direction.
  5. Seam integrity is another important feature of the APP membrane along with providing outstanding bondability.
  6. These membranes provide flexibility at low temperatures and dimensional stability at high temperatures.
  7. APP membranes are more easy to apply under hot-melt conditions.

Different types of waterproofing membranes

Besides APP waterproofing membranes, there are several others with a range of features, benefits and applications. Let’s have a look at the different types of waterproofing membranes available.APP waterproofing membrane: Features, types and applications | Shibam Ventures (3)

Self-adhesive modified bituminous membrane

These are membranes made of polymers, asphalt and tackifiers. Fiberglass, polyester or sometimes a combination of both the materials are used to give strength to this membrane. A release film or paper protects the self-adhesive layer in this type of waterproofing membrane. The paper is to be discarded at the time of installation.

Polymer modified bitumen membrane

Polymer modified bitumen is one of the most popular waterproofing materials. The material provides excellent flow resistance in hot conditions and withstands atmospheric changes. There is a polymer film both on top and bottom of the material. Polymer modified bitumen membrane materials make for a good underlay in pitched roofs and resists diffusion of moisture.

(Video) Commercial Roof Coatings 101 Webinar 2021

Pros of APP bitumen membrane

It comes as no surprise that the APP bitumen has been around for a few decades considering the multiple benefits it has to offer. Bitumen when modified with APP makes for a strong and versatile waterproofing material. Listed below are the key benefits of APP membrane:

APP waterproofing membrane: Features, types and applications | Shibam Ventures (4)

(Video) Kane Analysers Overview and Q&A Session

  1. The absence of seams in APP membranes guarantees 100% protection against leakage.
  2. It offers enhanced bitumen performance with excellent UV resistance
  3. Rapid changes in temperature have no effect on this waterproofing material’s efficiency.
  4. APP bitumen waterproofing possesses fire resistant properties coupled with improved flow resistance at high temperatures.
  5. These are excellent for applications in cold areas as even the coldest temperatures can’t inflict damage on this waterproofing material.
  6. Flexibility is an important feature as waterproofing materials are prone to damage from direct exposure to the atmosphere. APP scores high on flexibility as it is proven to survive storms and harsh atmospheric conditions with no damage such as cracks or dents.
  7. Several manufacturers offer warranties lasting for 10-20 years for APP membranes. By opting for an APP waterproofing membrane, you stand to gain from warranty protection.
  8. It offers optimum adhesion and elasticity and is excellent for protecting commercial buildings.

Cons of APP membrane

Though APP waterproofing membrane offers numerous advantages, there are also some disadvantages to it. Listed below are a few cons of using APP membrane:

  1. APP waterproofing membrane won’t work well with all surfaces.
  2. Your roof must have a draining system for this waterproofing material to work effectively.
  3. In the absence of a draining system, the standing water will penetrate and wear down the material.
  4. APP waterproofing membrane isn’t recommended for rooftop patios.

6 key factors to consider for waterproofing membrane application

For best results from waterproofing membranes, one needs to be careful about how it is applied. A lot of the problems arise as a result of negligence and lack of knowledge about the most ideal way to apply waterproofing materials. A minor flaw or oversight could render the waterproofing material completely useless. Listed below are a few things to keep in mind during application of waterproof membrane:APP waterproofing membrane: Features, types and applications | Shibam Ventures (5)

  1. It is important to ensure that the coating materials are resistant to abrasion while being accommodative of building movement. When membranes are applied too thin with unbonded screeds applied over it, mechanical abrasion is bound to happen. Ruptures and blisters are common outcomes of mechanical abrasion.
  2. The bond breaker junctions become incapable of accommodating movement when waterproofing is applied under a screed. The coating movement is restricted by the compacted screed when releasing from the bond breaker. To tackle this, one needs to put a foam rod to the perimeters prior to applying the screed. If the ideal Dry Film Thickness (DFT) is not achieved, movement accommodation may get more difficult.
  3. It is important to consider the DFT as there are consequences to both thicker and thinner coatings. A coating with even DFT is restricted from stretching.
  4. Different circumstances demand varying ranges of DFT. Wall applications in wet areas may demand 0.6-1 mm DFT whereas floor applications may require 1-1.3 mm DFT. Depending on the coating material, a DFT of 1.5-2 mm may be needed for podiums and balconies whereas pools, pits and planter boxes require DFT of 2-3 mm minimum.
  5. Three coats are necessary in case of low viscosity coatings to achieve the optimal WFT (Wet Film Thickness) and DFT.
  6. Thin coatings give rise to abrasive damage whereas thick coatings result in re-emulsification and splitting. Substrates must be prepared with utmost care to ensure desired thickness for optimal performance.

The weather conditions and the surface need to be taken into account while applying waterproofing membrane. It is also important to get a good applicator if you want to achieve best results. Keeping the above factors in mind will immensely help increase the performance of waterproof coatings.

Difference between SBS and APP

SBS and APP both are bitumen modified waterproofing materials. But what’s the difference between the both? Let’s discuss in detail so you can make an informed decision.

APP bitumen is plastic asphalt whereas SBS bitumen is elastic asphalt. The type of bitumen modifier used in SBS is synthetic rubber whereas the one used in APP is plastic. Here are a few key differences between both presented for better understanding:

1. Low temperature flexibility for SBS: -22o F to -5o F

Low temperature flexibility for APP: 14o F to 32o F

2. Softening point for SBS: 230o F to 270o F

Softening point for APP: 245o F to 300o F

3. Elongation with full recovery for SBS: >1000%

(Video) HSN | Saturday Morning with Callie & Alyce - Black Friday Deal Dash 11.19.2022 - 11 AM

Elongation with full recovery for APP: 5-10%

4. Serviceability range for SBS: -20o F to 270o F

Serviceability range for APP: 15o F to 300o F

When torched, APP membranes will turn into something similar to candle wax as it crosses temperatures above 300o F. The bitumen will flow like a free-flowing liquid that can be mopped across the surface. It exhibits high temperature tolerance during the heating process.

SBS on the other hand possess different properties than that of APP. SBS, unlike APP, won’t flow when heated. It is rather sticky and the stickiness is directly proportional to the amount of heat applied. SBS however is more flexible in comparison to APP. SBS will start flowing like liquid when subjected to more heat but that however means it is overheated.

(Video) iPRODUCE- a social manufacturing platform for co-creation ventures – also in the healthcare sector

Application process

Before applying APP waterproofing, it is necessary to ensure that the surface is free of any oils or chemicals. It is recommended to use a primer on the application surface. A welding torch is used to maintain 10 cm overtopping for joints and 15 cm overtopping for ends. With a trowel, the mineral stone that coats the surface on joints is heated and the minerals are buried into the bituminous surface before the joints are welded together.APP waterproofing membrane: Features, types and applications | Shibam Ventures (6)Membrane installation starts from the lowest point of the slope and progresses to the highest point. The substrate and underside are torched. When the shiny bitumen surface is exposed after the underside heating of the membrane, the membrane is rolled forward. The membrane is pressed firmly against the substrate for superior bonding. Once the torching process of the membrane starts, it shouldn’t be lifted or shifted.The overlaps are then pressed into the seam with a trowel. While maintaining the side and end overlaps, a round tip trowel is used to smoothen the bitumen produced at the seams. Special care should be taken to seal angles and abutments. The last step is to seal the edges into the grooves.

(Video) Provisional Planning and Highways Meeting - 7 April 2022

Shibam Ventures and Building Materials (P) Ltd is one of the pioneers in supply and application of waterproofing systems with a rich experience of over 45 years. With constant focus on innovation, we are deeply committed to provide products of latest technologies in the waterproofing and construction industry. Get in touch with us today for superior products, great customer service and exceptional workmanship for your waterproofing projects anywhere in India.

FAQs

What is APP waterproofing membrane? ›

What is an APP waterproofing membrane? APP stands for Atactic Polypropylene. APP membrane is the most commonly used waterproofing material on concrete roofs and low-slope roofs. APP membrane is applied to asphalts with a torch. Applications of APP membranes aren't limited to just roofs.

What is best membrane for waterproofing? ›

PVC membrane is one of the most frequently used waterproofing products for roofs. It is both water and vapor permeable and can be reinforced to offer extra durability. It is also very easy to install and has a long lifespan.

What is a waterproofing membrane made of? ›

A waterproofing membrane is a thin layer of water-tight material laid over the concrete. These membranes consist of thin layers of waterproof material like plastic, rubber, coated fabric materials, or petroleum-based asphalt material, and they come as sheets or in a spray-on application.

What is the difference between APP and SBS roofing? ›

APP membranes are used more often on smaller roofing areas because they flow more easily. SBS membranes can tolerate much lower temperatures, making them ideal for cold-weather areas. They also take less time to install and last longer.

What are APP membranes? ›

The APP membrane, short for Atactic Polypropylene Membrane, is a special waterproofing material that is manufactured from Bitumen. They comes in rolls. Each roll measures 10 metres by 1 metre and covers an area of 8.7 m².

What is waterproofing and its types? ›

What are the types of waterproofing? The most common types of waterproofing are cementitious waterproofing, liquid waterproofing membrane, bituminous membrane, bituminous coating, and polyurethane liquid membrane.

How many types of waterproofing membranes are there? ›

There are essentially 2 types of membranes, sheet based membranes and liquid applied membranes. Ideally, a waterproofing membrane should be strong, flexible, tear-resistant and elastic so that it can stretch to cover cracks and also move with the building.

Why is waterproof membrane important? ›

A high-quality foundation waterproofing membrane serves as the all-important barrier between the concrete and the surrounding earth. It helps prevent water infiltration and can even resist harmful contaminants from entering the structure.

What is a Class 3 membrane? ›

A Class 3 membrane has an elongation tolerance of above 300%, at the correct DFT. Twelve millimetres of an even DFT will stretch another 36mm before elongation failure.

What is the role of membrane? ›

The plasma membrane, or the cell membrane, provides protection for a cell. It also provides a fixed environment inside the cell, and that membrane has several different functions. One is to transport nutrients into the cell and also to transport toxic substances out of the cell.

What are the common types of waterproofing materials? ›

Here are some of the common waterproofing materials used in building constructions.
  • Cementitious Waterproofing.
  • Liquid Waterproofing Membrane.
  • Bituminous Coating Waterproofing.
  • Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing.
  • Polyurethane Liquid Membrane Waterproofing.
26 Mar 2019

What are 3 types of sheeting that can be used on a roof? ›

Here are the three different types of roofing sheets that you ought to consider using.
  • Different Types Of Roofing Sheets Currently Available. ...
  • Corrugated Roofing Sheets. ...
  • Sheet Metal Roofing Sheets. ...
  • Polycarbonate Roofing Sheets. ...
  • Which One Of These Should You Choose?

What does app stand for in roofing? ›

Atactic polypropylene (APP) is a plastic which when used with asphalt, gives what's commonly called 'plastic asphalt'. On the other hand, styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) is a synthetic rubber, creating the 'elastic asphalt'. These. Modified Bitumen systems continue to be popular for a variety of reasons.

Where are waterproofing membranes used? ›

It's used for roofs like flat roofs, pitched roofs, domed roofs and walls also. A liquid applied membrane involves Fully bonded monolithic coating application. This coating, once cured, forms a rubber-like elastomeric waterproofing membrane.

What is app modified membrane? ›

Bituroll-P, APP Modified Bitumen membrane is a plastomeric waterproofing membrane, manufactured from a rich mixture of bitumen and selected polymers(Atatic Poly Propylene) blended together to obtain excellent heat and UV resistance and waterproofing properties.

Is membrane waterproofing good? ›

It is a very efficient and durable waterproofing material used in most constructions. It is a common waterproofing material used on concrete flat roofs . Apart from concrete roofs and low-pitched roofs, other areas of application are concrete gutters, basements and retaining walls.

What is waterproofing method? ›

Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or underwater to specified depths.

What is waterproofing system? ›

Waterproofing protects structures against water infiltration which can cause expensive and irreversible damage. It is mostly invisible after construction is completed.

What tools are used for waterproofing? ›

Equipment and Tools
  • Portable Torch Kit 1 Product.
  • Notched Squeegee 2 Products.
  • Dust Shrouds 3 Products.
  • 24 Seg PCD 2 Products.
  • Magic Trowel 2 Products.
  • Tape 1 Product.
  • Rollers 9 Products.
  • Pro Grade Mixing Paddle 1 Product.

What is Type 2 waterproofing? ›

512.09 Type 2 Membrane Waterproofing. This type of waterproofing consists of a rubberized asphalt and peel-and-stick waterproofing membrane 711.25. If the ambient temperature is below 50 °F (10 °C), use a manufacturer recommended primer coat for vertical surface application.

What is a Class 1 waterproofing membrane? ›

Waterproofing membranes are sold based on the merits of the elongation properties and their ability to bridge cracks. The current Australian Standards classify membranes into Class I, II and III according to % Elongation: Class I: 0-59% Class II: 60-299% Class III: 300% and above.

What is Level 3 waterproofing? ›

Class 3 – Waterproof so tight it floats or can handle quick submersions. The product could be permeated by water in any of the following applications: prolonged submersion, submersions greater than 3 feet in depth, high water pressure applications.

What is the Classification of waterproofing? ›

The waterproofing areas in buildings can be classified into three main categories such as internal, external and sub-grade works.

What are the properties of waterproof? ›

The materials for waterproofing in effect should have properties like water-tightness, flexibility, crack-bridging ability, bonding strength, breathability, resistance to UV radiations, microbial attacks, fungus growth, mechanical stresses, insulation characteristics and above all the cost effectiveness.

What are the different levels of waterproofing? ›

Protection from water
  • IPX0: The product offers no special protection from water.
  • IPX1: Can resist water that drips vertically onto the product.
  • IPX2: Can resist water that hits the product at a 15° angle or less.
  • IPX3: Can take water sprays of up to 60°.
  • IPX4: Is resistant to water splashes from any direction.
4 Dec 2015

How does a waterproof membrane work? ›

A waterproof membrane works by sealing a surface to avoid water leaks, chemicals, heat, and other substances from coming in contact with the surface underlay. It can withstand tear, breaking, and even releases water into the atmosphere as vapor to ensure a longer lasting structure.

What are the benefits of waterproofing? ›

Waterproofing is essential to help reduce moisture levels in the interior surfaces, preventing water damage and structural breakdown across common surfaces such as walls, ceilings, basements, floors, rooftops and, bathrooms.

How many coats of waterproof membrane should you apply? ›

If you are using a liquid waterproofing membrane for your shower (most common for DIY projects), you should install at least two coats. Most liquid membranes will come with directions related to how long you need to wait between applying coats.

What are the types membrane? ›

Membranes can be generally classified into synthetic membranes and biological membranes. Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that allow passage of certain constituents); nuclear membranes, which cover a cell nucleus; and tissue membranes, such as mucosae and serosae.

How many types of membrane are there? ›

Based on their structure, there are main three types of membrane proteins: the first one is integral membrane protein that is permanently anchored or part of the membrane, the second type is peripheral membrane protein that is only temporarily attached to the lipid bilayer or to other integral proteins, and the third ...

What is membrane classification? ›

Membrane Classification. • Pressure driven membranes are divided into. four main divisions based on pore size. – Microfiltration (MF) – Ultrafiltration (UF) – Nanofiltration (NF) – Reverse Osmosis (RO) Decreasing pore size.

What are 5 functions of membranes? ›

Terms in this set (5)
  • protects the cell by acting as a barrier.
  • regulates the transport of substances in and out of the cell.
  • receives chemical messengers from other cell.
  • acts as a receptor.
  • cell mobility, secretions, and absorptions of substances.

What are the 4 functions of membranes? ›

The four main functions of the plasma membrane include identification, communication, regulation of solute exchange through the membrane, and isolation of the cytoplasm from the external environment.

What are the five membrane functions? ›

Providing a Selectively Permeable Barrier 2. Transporting Solutes 3. Transporting Macromolecules 4. Responding to External Signals 5.

What is waterproof material used for? ›

Waterproof/breathable fabrics resist liquid water passing through, but allow water vapour to pass through. Their ability to block out rain and snow while allowing vapour from sweat to evaporate leads to their use in rainwear, waterproof outdoor sports clothing, tents, and other applications.

What are the 3 main components of a roof? ›

It incorporates joists, trusses, and rafters. Together, these three types of beams make up a framework that gives the roof its shape.

What are the 2 kinds of roofing material? ›

The top 5 types of roofing materials
  • Asphalt shingle roof. An asphalt shingle roof is the most common roofing material type you see on homes today. ...
  • Standing seam metal roof. ...
  • Cedar shake roof. ...
  • Composite (synthetic) shingle roof. ...
  • Slate roof.
8 Dec 2021

What is app polymer? ›

Polymer is the simplest way to manage a 3D printer, right from your mobile device. It works with any 3D printer with OctoPrint. You can start and monitor prints from anywhere*, and manage your printer with its advanced controls. It is built to be at home on iOS, sporting a beautiful, intuitive design.

What is app bitumen? ›

APP bitumen

APP-modified bitumen is a plastic bitumen blend, which is modified using plastic in the form of atactic polypropylene (APP).

What's app stand for? ›

Where does WhatsApp come from? WhatsApp. WhatsApp was founded in 2009 by WhatsApp, Inc. The company name puns on the popular colloquial greeting What's up? and app, short for application.

What are the six basic roof types? ›

Six Roof Designs and Styles
  • Gable. Two slopes that form a ridge characterize the most common roof shape – the gable roof. ...
  • Flat. A flat roof is just what it sounds like and is a very standard frame for modern homes. ...
  • Hip. A hip roof has slopes on all four sides. ...
  • Gambrel. ...
  • Mansard. ...
  • Salt Box.
6 Sept 2020

What is the best type of roof? ›

Top 6 Best Roofing Materials
  • Asphalt Shingle Roofing: Best Overall.
  • Slate Roofing: Most Durable.
  • Metal Roofing: Most Versatile.
  • Wood Shingles: Most Environmentally Friendly Option.
  • Clay Tile Roofs: Best Curb Appeal.
  • TPO Roofing: Best for Flat Roof.

What is a Class 4 roof? ›

To receive a Class 4 rating, a roofing shingle must withstand having a 2-inch steel ball dropped multiple times from a height of 20 feet. For more perspective, if this same test is repeated on a 4-inch concrete paver, the force of the steel ball would crack the paver in half.

What is APP modified membrane? ›

Bituroll-P, APP Modified Bitumen membrane is a plastomeric waterproofing membrane, manufactured from a rich mixture of bitumen and selected polymers(Atatic Poly Propylene) blended together to obtain excellent heat and UV resistance and waterproofing properties.

What is app modified bituminous membrane? ›

APP-modified bitumen is a plastic bitumen blend, which is modified using plastic in the form of atactic polypropylene (APP).

What is an app roofing system? ›

APP-modified bitumen is a roofing membrane. Contractors typically apply these membranes to asphalt with a torch. The process looks a little similar to mopping, as the contractor must spread the membrane across all sections of the roof. Once applied, you can choose to leave the roof's surface smooth or add granules.

What are the three types of roofing? ›

Three Common Roof Designs and Their Advantages
  • Hip. A hip roof has slopes on all of its sides. The roof doesn't have even a single vertical side. ...
  • Gable. A gable roof features two sloping sides that meet at the top to form a ridge. ...
  • Flat. A flat roof has an extremely low pitch and is almost horizontally level.

What is App polymer? ›

Polymer is the simplest way to manage a 3D printer, right from your mobile device. It works with any 3D printer with OctoPrint. You can start and monitor prints from anywhere*, and manage your printer with its advanced controls. It is built to be at home on iOS, sporting a beautiful, intuitive design.

What is SBS waterproofing membrane? ›

Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) describes a family of synthetic rubber derived from styrene and butadiene. SBS is a thermo plastic elastomer that has an excellent abrasion resistance and aging stability when blended with bitumen, making it the perfect bitumen modifier to achieve cold flexibility and elastic properties.

What is HDPE waterproofing membrane? ›

Fosroc Membrane HDPE-S provides water, water vapour protection to water excluding structures and protects concrete from aggresive ground salts, chemicals and hydrocarbons.

What are the three types of bitumen? ›

There are three varieties of bitumen emulsion, namely, slow setting (SS), medium setting (MS) and rapid setting (RS) depending upon the stability provided by the emulsifying agent. It can be easily applied at ambient temperature, merely mixing it with aggregates for road works starts the binding process.

What are the two types of bitumen? ›

Bitumen types regarding their application regarding their applications, bitumen can be divided into two groups: road construction or thin bitumen, and building bitumen and (roof insulator) or hard bitumen.

What are 4 functions of a roof? ›

It may provide any or all of the following functions:
  • To shed water i.e., prevent water from standing on the roof surface. ...
  • To protect the building interior from the effects of weather elements such as rain, wind, sun, heat and snow.
  • To provide thermal insulation. ...
  • To perform for the expected service life.

What are 5 examples of common roof styles? ›

8 Common Roof Types
  • Gable Roof. Think back to your first crayon drawing of a home. ...
  • Clipped Gable Roof. The clipped gable roof goes by several names, including bullnose. ...
  • Dutch Gable Roof. ...
  • Gambrel Roof. ...
  • Hip Roof. ...
  • Mansard Roof. ...
  • Shed Roof. ...
  • Flat Roof (Low Slope Roof)

Videos

1. Johns Manville Mechanical Insulation Product Webinar
(Johns Manville Mechanical Insulation)
2. PICE Specialty Division: GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING (May 6 2020)
(Jose Alberto IV Jimenez)
3. mCollection Webinar Recording | Star Micronics
(Star Micronics)
4. Pitchmastic PmB International company overview, product focus & project history
(USL UK Group)
5. EPDM For Facade Sealing Applications CPD Webinar 22.09.21 Recording
(CARLISLE Construction Materials Ltd.)
6. Dispensing, potting and encapsulation challenges - Live at APEX 2017
(Global SMT TV)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Barbera Armstrong

Last Updated: 02/20/2023

Views: 5920

Rating: 4.9 / 5 (79 voted)

Reviews: 94% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Barbera Armstrong

Birthday: 1992-09-12

Address: Suite 993 99852 Daugherty Causeway, Ritchiehaven, VT 49630

Phone: +5026838435397

Job: National Engineer

Hobby: Listening to music, Board games, Photography, Ice skating, LARPing, Kite flying, Rugby

Introduction: My name is Barbera Armstrong, I am a lovely, delightful, cooperative, funny, enchanting, vivacious, tender person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.